Ectoparasites #5

This is the last of Ectoparasites for the VT students of 2008 to study from for their finials. Since this is a very large section it has to broke up into parts to get everything down that we need to know so that we may pass our finial.

So how did you do on this section? I hope you did better then you thought that you would do. I know that it is helping me by doing this, since when I took one of the other test I got a good score on it and I will be trying them again later.

Created by: xandie

  1. Only female ticks feed on blood.
  2. There are many disease linked to ticks.
  3. There are two classes of ticks.
  4. Soft ticks- origin of legs and head are under the edge of the body and looks like a crab.
  5. Hard ticks (Ixodidae) look just like the soft ticks.
  6. The most common tick is the soft tick.
  7. Dermacentor nitans do not spend their entire life cycle upon the same host.
  8. A two host tick (Rhipicephalus evertsi and some Amblyomma species) will attach to the host as larvae, feed, detach and leave the host as mature larvae or nymphs, then they will molt on the ground and return to a new of different host.
  9. Dermacentor venustus and Amblyomma americanum have a three host life cycle.
  10. There are 5 stage in the life cycle of a tick.
  11. Each stage of the tick except for the egg requires a blood meal.
  12. The adult females may increase 1000x with a blood meal before laying eggs.
  13. Ticks will mate off the host.
  14. The female after engorgement drops off the host and crawls to a protected place to lay her 150-20000 eggs depending on the species.
  15. Tick larval or seed tick have 4 pair of legs.
  16. Nymphs have 4 pair of legs, and their activity is similar to larvae except they live longer.
  17. The adult tick if it molts on host, crawl from nymphal exoskeleton and reattach to host, if they molt on the ground, they climb upon vegetation to await a new host.
  18. Male ticks may or may not be parasitic as and adult.
  19. Ticks my remove 200 pounds of blood from a large host during a single season.
  20. Many types of disease can be spread by ticks.
  21. The scutum is present on soft ticks.
  22. Some ticks have eyes and festoons, and some do not.
  23. You can tell what type of tick you have by the coloring of the scutum, and the shape of the basis capituli.
  24. Coxa is the second segment of each leg of a tick.
  25. The anal groove is the groove around the anus, and the anal plates are sclerotized structure on the ventral side lateral to the anus in males
  26. The stigmatic plate is the breathing mechanism behind the last leg or between the 3rd. and 4th legs.
  27. Hypostome is the mouth parts medial to the palpi which is paired appendages anterior to the scutum and lateral and parallel to the hypostome.
  28. Argus (Fowl tick, Blue bug, and Adobe tick) is oval, very flat and leathery with a reddish brown color and are up to 6-1mm in size.
  29. Avian are the host of Argus, and the adults are nocturnal on the bird and hide in cracks during the day. They can live 37 months without feeding.
  30. Argus eggs are laid in batches of 20- 150 in cracks and crevices near the bird. The Larvae will hatch in 5 days-2 months.
  31. A bird with ruffled feathers, poor appetite, and diarrhea will have Argus.
  32. Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick) females can reach up to 10mm and males are slightly smaller.
  33. The otobius megnini nymphs attach in the ear and may remain attached for months, when feeding is done it will detach and crawl out and drop to the ground.
  34. When and animal has Otobius megnini they will be shaking and tilting their head.
  35. In Oregon, Ixodes pacificu, Dermacentor andersoni, and Ixodes damnii are not common.
  36. K-9 Advantix and revolution are good tick control.
  37. The best tick control is to avoid brushy or grassy areas in the spring and fall of the year.
  38. Diseases that you may contract from ticks are Lymes (Borrelia burgdorgi), Rocky Mountan Spotted Fever, Ehrlichia, and probaly more tick borne Rickettsias and viruses.
  39. The diseases in question 38 can be transmitted to man, so they do have a zoonotic potential.
  40. When removing a tick by hand pull slowly up, will slough a plug around tick bite anyway so retained mothparts not a big worry.

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