The place above our tiny blue dot in the black abyss

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Thread Topic: The place above our tiny blue dot in the black abyss

alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
up of gases produces the incredibly dense atmosphere, while the volcanism thickens the crust, until a point is reached when volcanism may actually become rare. However, a buildup of subsurface pressure is inevitable, and every few hundred million years the surface literally melts as the molten mantle boils up. Once this pressure has been globally released, the process of thickening the crust begins once more.
Arid Class
These are Terrestrial worlds whose conditions support a limited but continuous hydrological cycle, and quite often an accompanying biosphere. The geological activity of these worlds, coupled with the constant recycling of carbon by that activity, aids in both keeping the planet from freezing, or from evolving into a Cytherean world. Indeed, it is often the evolved biology of the planet which aids in maintaining its habitability.
DarwinianType
These are Arid worlds with less than 30% surface water coverage, and lacking any kind of plate tectonics.Most of the planet's water is locked up within its biomass, which aids in maintaining global habitability.
SaganianType
These are ammonia equivalents of Darwinian worlds, the planet's water being mixed with liquid ammonia, the biomass fully adapted and dependent on its presence.
AsimovianType
These are methane equivalents of Darwinian worlds, the planet's water being mixed with liquid methane, the biomass fully adapted and dependent on its presence. These worlds are found around the dimmer M-type dwarf stars..
Tectonic Class
These are Terrestrial worlds whose conditions support a continuous hydrological cycle, and quite often an accompanying biosphere. The crust of these worlds are separated into thinner and heavier oceanic crust, and thicker and lighter raised continental crust.
GaianType
These are silicate-rich Tectonic worlds, non-tidally locked, with a continuous geological cycle and often quite geologically active. They tend to be located around stars ranging from F8 V to K3 V, and are often in systems with one or more large outer system Jovians. They are usually attended by one or more large moons, which aids in stabilizing the planet's axial tilt, and thus supports a stable biosphere.
EoGaian Subtype
These are young Gaian worlds, roughly between 800 million and 3 billion years in age, which have rich and thick carbon dioxide and methane atmospheres. The presence of such a thick atmosphere, generated largely by methanogen bacteria, creates a major greenhouse effect and a fairly active water cycle. The atmospheric methane also forms thick layers of hydrocarbons in the upper atmosphere, covering the planet in an orange haze.
MesoGaian Subtype
These are Gaian worlds roughly between 3 and 4 billion years of age, with prominent microbiological ecosystems. The atmospheres of these worlds have been largely cleared of methane, although carbon dioxide remains prevalent. As the present microbiological forms of life become more complex and evolve, however, they begin to release oxygen into the atmosphere, slowly transforming the planet into a EuGaian state.
EuGaian Subtype
These are mature Gaian worlds with fully developed geological, hydrological, and biological systems. Life is usually quite diverse, although there may be cases where evolution beyond simple microbial forms never occurred, simply because there was no environmental pressure to do so. However, even in these cases, the life present produces oxygen and carbon dioxide as a bi-product, making the atmosphere unique and generally friendly for non-native life forms. In short, these are the archetypical "blue marbles" that are so covetously sought after by Humankind.
GaianXeric Subdivision
These are warm and dry EuGaian worlds, with 15% or less of the surface covered by standing water. Major desert zones are common, and life tends to remain close to the small ocean and sea basins. Plate tectonics are present, but the relative scarcity of water means that this geological process moves slowly. Less water also means that less carbon dioxide is absorbed and locked away into carbonate rock; as such, the atmospheres are carbon dioxide rich and contribute to the over all higher temperatures of the worlds.
GaianCampian Subdivision
These are EuGaian worlds with 30 to 50% water coverage, their oceans and seas tending to be quite saline. Climatic extremes are common, and vast inland deserts are not uncommon. Due to the low water table, biomass and atmospheric oxygen is much lower in levels than with other Gaian worlds. The effective absence of an efficient oceanic heat transfer system makes for large temperature differences between the latitudes.
GaianPaludial Subdivision
These are EuGaian worlds with 30 to 50% water coverage, where land features tend to have low surface relief, forming extensive swamplands, lakes, lushly forested regions, and semi-open woodland. The climate is predominantly oceanic, with relatively open ocean flow and freedom for globe-spanning weather systems to keep a largely homogenous planetary temperature. Polar regions do tend towards glaciation, however. The geographical arrangement is typically due to a decrease in geological activity, and tends to be common for lower mass, older Gaian worlds.
GaianContinental Subdivision
These are EuGaian worlds with 50 to 80% water coverage, with most of the planet's water concentrated within deep ocean basins. The arrangement of continental plates can create a wide variety of climatic conditions across the globe, and these conditions change constantly as the plates continue to slowly drift over the billions of years of the planet's lifetime.
GaianPelagic Subdivision
These are EuGaian worlds with over 80% water coverage, the continental plates largely submerged. The global climate is even and tends towards the temperate, although various circumstances can swing that climate to either the cold or the hot end of the spectrum. The majority of the terrestrial regions are islands or micro-continents located along rift or convergent zones.
BathyGaian Subtype
These are Gaian worlds which could be regarded as cooler and relatively drier versions of BathyPelagic worlds, or very hot and high surface pressured EuGaian worlds. Superficially they are similar to true Cytherean worlds, their massive atmospheres consisting of carbon dioxide, and their surfaces concealed beneath dense cloud layers. These surfaces are under 10 to 100 bars of pressure and on the order of 200 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, although the high pressure keeps that water from evaporating. The surface of the planet is covered by a global ocean several kilometers deep. Life is nearly always present, with more complex forms found in the deeper waters. The ocean bottom is barren and largely anoxic, but possesses its own particular set of biomes. Plate tectonics are present, but continental crust is almost entirely missing.
ChloriticGaian Subtype
These are Gaian worlds which are quite rare and tend to be located around warmer G and cooler F-type stars. They typically have little or no complex surface life, with most forms remaining in marine environments. They are marked by the presence of large quantities of integrated chlorine in the environment, which is integral to any biomes present. in appearance, the oceans and clouds are somewhat greenish, while the continents tend to be a somewhat barren brown.
AmuGaian Subtype
These are Gaian worlds with 15 to 85% ammonia ocean coverage and methane-rich atmospheres. Such worlds have cold climates despite the presence of a greenhouse gas, with the ammonia content in the water aiding in keeping them liquid. These worlds are typically found in orbit of cooler K and M-type suns. Life can be present on these worlds, but employs processes to balance the mixed ammonia-water chemistry of their environments.
ThioGaian Subtype
These are Gaian wor
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
lds based on sulfur photosynthesis rather than oxygen photosynthesis. The protein S8, which is produced in photosynthesis, is carried to the upper atmosphere and shields the surface from radiation, while the sulfuric acid which is also produced by this process is used to produce sulfur dioxide by plankton-like faunaforms or microbes, which is then produced by other life forms, which in turn produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide as a waste product. These are then used by the floraforms to continue the cycle. Such worlds tend to have yellowish skies, and the soil may be stained red from extensive rust deposits.
GaianGelidian Subtype
These are Gaian worlds which have settled into a frozen climatic equilibrium, either due to biological or orbital placement reasons. Complex life, if it develops, or remains extant, tends to be concentrated within subglacial seas. However, if such a world has entered into this state after the evolution of complex life, then that life will have most likely gone extinct. The atmospheres are oxygen-deprived and nitrogen-rich. The air is usually devoid of major cloud formations, and with Aeolian forces being dominant, the land areas will likely be barren of ice as past glaciers will no longer have the means to grow, and their surface areas will be desiccated by the wind.
PostGelidian Subtype
These are Gaian worlds which have begun to lose large amounts of surface water, typically due to the beginning of their sun's evolution off of the main sequence. Early stages of this Subtype are worlds with dense, cloud-covered, water-rich atmospheres. Often, plant life will undergo an explosion of diversity and growth. Later examples of these worlds will be largely desert, with very restricted and highly saline seas located in the lowest elevations. Life, if it remains, will be microbial extremophiles.
AmunianType
These are carbon-rich worlds, and thus deprived of water, silicates, and other oxygen-bearing compounds. They are rich in carbides, hydrocarbons, and other carbon compounds. The soils of these particular worlds are also rich in nitrogen. Life on these worlds forms not in water, then, which is rock-hard at the temperatures involved, but in liquid ammonia. These worlds are found around M and K-dwarf suns, as the ultraviolet flux of anything greater would break down the planetary supply of ammonia. The term Amunian is derived from the Egyptian god Amun, from which the word 'ammonia' comes from.
EoAmunian Subtype
These are young Amunian worlds, having an atmosphere of gaseous ammonia, methane, and small amounts of water droplets. As the planet ages and cools, these components will be broken down into nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and a hydrocarbon 'tar' that will rain down on the surface. Ammonia oceans will condense on the surface during this period, and the earliest forms of life will develop. These organisms will be acidophilic due to the presence of dissolved water, but they will begin converting the present oxygen into sulfur dioxide as a part of their metabolic processes.
MesoAmunian Subtype
These are Amunian worlds which have cooled, their atmospheres composed almost entirely of nitrogen and carbon monoxide. The primitive life present will begin to use a hydrogen-methane cycle, thus increasing the amount of methane within the atmosphere. Cycles which incorporate nitrogen and carbon monoxide will also be used and eventually incorporated into the growing planetary ecology. As levels of methane increase the planet will once again begin to warm.
EuAmunian Subtype
These are Amunian worlds which are often considered to be ammonia analogues of Gaian worlds. They possess plate tectonics, a dynamic climate, and sometimes an advanced biosphere. There are, however, differences in climate, hydrology, meteorology, and geology, all of which are significant. They are colder than Gaian worlds, forming beyond the habitable zone of their sun, but still receive enough energy to melt ammonia. Because ammonia ice is more dense than liquid ammonia, polar caps are located beneath the polar oceans. In appearance they are greener than Gaian worlds, because of the gases involved, and their atmospheres tend to be dense and rich in nitrogen, with significant amounts of methane and hydrogen.
BathyAmunian Subtype
These are Amunian worlds with much stronger greenhouse effects than EuAmunian worlds. The atmospheres are very dense that retain large amounts of carbon monoxide and 'humid' with ammonia. These worlds are capable of supporting liquid ammonia at higher temperatures because of the greater atmospheric pressure. These atmospheres may contain significant amounts of volcanic and possibly sulfuric gases, depending on the inherent geological activity of the planet. Large portions of the extant biomass will be located in the upper atmosphere, where it is cooler, as well as within the oceans and seas. Such organisms are considered to be extremophiles by the standards of the rest of the planet. The extreme worlds, highest in pressure, can actually support liquid ammonia at temperatures which are more common on EuGaian worlds.
TartarianType
These are worlds rich in methane and carbon compounds. Life on these worlds forms not in water, which is rock hard at the temperatures involved, but in liquid methane. These worlds are found around dimmer suns, or in the outer regions of Solar-type suns.
EuTartarian Subtype
These are Tartarian worlds which are often considered to be methane analogues of Gaian worlds. They possess plate tectonics, a dynamic climate, and sometimes an advanced biosphere. There are, however, differences in climate, hydrology, meteorology, and geology, all of which are significant. They are colder than Gaian worlds, forming beyond the habitable zone of their sun, but still receive enough energy to melt methane, and their atmospheres tend to be dense and rich in nitrogen, with significant amounts of methane and hydrogen.
Oceanic Class
These are Terrestrial worlds whose conditions support a continuous hydrological cycle with a global ocean that is tens of kilometers deep, many of which support advanced biospheres. The geological processes involved tend to be more related to Telluric or Arid than Tectonic worlds.
PelagicType
These are geologically active silicate worlds covered with a global ocean. They are typically found around warm K to cool F-type suns.
EuPelagic Subtype
These are Pelagic worlds with hundreds of times the water found on EuGaian worlds. The atmospheres are oxygen rich due to several ocean-related factors. Some worlds have an oxygen content in excess of 90%.
BathyPelagic Subtype
These are Pelagic worlds with the highest amounts of water, their global oceans tens to hundreds of kilometers deep, their atmospheres extremely dense. The surface temperature can reach into the hundreds of degrees Fahrenheit, but the intense atmospheric pressure keeps the ocean liquid, and also serves to keep it from boiling away. Indeed, the surface evaporation and re-condensation is so high that the demarcation line between ocean and atmosphere is difficult to determine.
PelagicGelidian Subtype
These are Pelagic worlds with their crusts frozen over due to a variety of reasons, most often a dimming sun. Tidal or subsurface geological stresses often create cracks in the global ice coverage, allowing a thin atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen to form. Were it not for constant replenishment from these rifts, the atmosphere would desiccate within a few million years.
NunnicType
These are geologically active worlds covered in global oceans of liquid ammonia.
TeathicTypeThese are geologically active worlds covered in global oceans of liquid methane.

Helian Group

These are worlds with 3 to 17 Earth masses, enough to retain helium atmospheres.
GeoHelian Class
These are Helian worlds with masses rangin
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
g from 3 to 15 times that of Earth, and which lack a layer of liquid or super-condensed volatiles, having either expended them long ago, or never having had them to begin with. Older, more stable regions may be heavily cratered, but much of the surface of these worlds tends to be geologically young.
HalcyonicType
These are silicon-rich GeoHelian worlds in tight solar orbits, their masses ranging from 5 to 15 times that of Earth. There is substantial surface volcanic activity, and though the atmosphere is quite dense, it is relatively cloudless due to the extremely high temperatures. The surface is thus visible from space, but still partially obscured by the sheer thickness of the atmosphere, which from space appears as a blue haze, especially pronounced along the limb of the planet.
HyperionicType
These are silicate-rich GeoHelian worlds with masses ranging from 5 to 13 times that of Earth. There is substantial surface volcanic activity, and a large greenhouse effect which is slightly off-set by a cloudy atmosphere of yellowish sulfuric acid or water clouds. The surface is extremely hot, and well outside the range for life.
ThetuseanType
These are carbon-rich GeoHelian worlds in tight solar orbits, their masses ranging from 5 to 15 times that of Earth. There is substantial surface volcanic activity, and the atmosphere is quite dense and thick with dark clouds of hydrocarbon soot. The surface is extremely hot due to a combination of a very strong greenhouse effect and the low albedo of the hydrocarbon clouds.
MetuseanType
These are carbon-rich GeoHelian worlds with masses ranging from 4 to 13 times that of Earth. There is substantial surface volcanic activity, and a large greenhouse effect which is slightly off-set by a cloudy atmosphere of white water, brown ammonium hydrosulfide, or cream-colored ammonia clouds. The surface is extremely hot, and well outside the range for life, although there may be lakes or even oceans of thick hydrocarbon tar.
SolarianType
These are carbide-rich GeoHelian worlds in tight solar orbits, their masses ranging from 5 to 15 times that of Earth. There is substantial surface volcanic activity, and though the atmosphere is quite dense, it is relatively cloudless due to the extremely high temperatures. The surface is thus visible from space, but still partially obscured by the sheer thickness of the atmosphere, which from space appears as a reddish haze, especially pronounced along the limb of the planet.
TheanType
These are ice-rich GeoHelian worlds with masses ranging from 3 to 10 times that of Earth, and are located beyond the snowline of their solar system.
Nebulous Class
These are Helian worlds with masses ranging from 3 to 15 times that of Earth. Their atmospheres are extremely dense and support a layer of super-condensed volatiles.
GeoNebulousType
These are Nebulous worlds with masses ranging from 5 to 15 times that of Earth. These are extremely hot worlds composed primarily of silicates, their thin crusts riddled with tectonic activity. This activity may be of the degree that there are entire lakes or seas of magma. Within a matter of years, the surfaces of these worlds can be completely turned over. The atmospheres are thick and dense, supporting a massive greenhouse effect and sometimes comprising up to 10% of the planet's mass.
CryoNebulousType
These are Nebulous worlds with masses ranging from 4 to 10 times that of Earth. These worlds form beyond the snowline and are composed of a roughly equal mixture of ice and rock. Due to their mass their crusts are thin and riddled with cryovolcanic activity, which serve to keep their surfaces fairly smooth. The atmospheres are thick and dense, sometimes comprising up to 10% of the planetary mass.
PanthalassicClass
These are Helian worlds with masses ranging from 3 to 13 times that of Earth. They are actually best described as aborted gas giants, having initially begun their formation beyond their solar system's snowline. However, tidal dragging caused by interactions with the accretion disk caused them to migrate inward of the snowline, where their growth was slowed or halted due to the sudden lack of abundant icy materials (which swiftly feed the growth of Jovian worlds). However, being composed of largely icy materials, they develop tremendously deep oceanic surfaces and thick atmospheres of water, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Jovian Group

These are worlds with masses ranging from 10 to 4,000 times that of Earth, an equivalent of 0.03 to 13 times that of Jupiter. They have thick hydrogen and helium envelopes, which have given them the nickname of 'gas giants'. Their cores are composed of rock and ice, and can themselves range from less than an Earth mass to several.
SubJovianClass
These are Jovian worlds with masses ranging from 0.03 to 0.48 times that of Jupiter. While they have the typical dense atmosphere of hydrogen and helium, a large portion of their mass is taken up by a large ice and rock core. Some of these worlds will possess a compressed liquid water oceanic mantle.
SokarianType
These are SubJovians in tight solar orbits whose upper atmospheres are largely filled with silicate clouds. Extreme examples may actually be too hot to support upper cloud layers at all.
PoseidonicType
These are SubJovians which orbit within the snowline, and which possess large amounts of water vapor in their atmospheres.
NeptunianType
These are SubJovians which orbit beyond the snow line, often marked by relatively quiet upper atmospheres, overlain by a methane haze, lending a blue to green color to the planet. Near upper atmospheric layers may be quite volatile, however, being driven more by the internal heat of the planet than by any solar energy received.
DwarfJovianClass
These are Jovian worlds with masses ranging from 0.06 to 0.8 times that of Jupiter. The greatest portion of their masses are concentrated within their gaseous envelopes, but they still have a low enough gravity to swell from stellar heating. The more massive examples will have layers of liquid metallic hydrogen or helium surrounding their cores.
OsirianType
These are DwarfJovians in tight solar orbits whose upper atmospheres are largely filled with silicate clouds. Extreme examples may actually be too hot to support upper cloud layers at all.
BrammianType
These are DwarfJovians which orbit within the snowline, and have large amounts of water within their atmospheres. Of all the Jovians to be found in this orbital region, these are the most likely to develop atmospheric-based life, although it rarely evolves past simple microbial forms.
Khonsonian Type
These are DwarfJovians which orbit just outside of the snowline, and thus have a low instance of water within their atmospheres. However, they are ammonia-rich, and their upper atmospheres are highly altered by the presence of ammonia-based life.
SaturnianType
These are DwarfJovians which orbit beyond the snowline, and which possess dynamic atmospheres, though they are often obscured by methane and ammonia.
MesoJovianClass
These are Jovian worlds with masses ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 times that of Jupiter. The greatest portion of their masses are concentrated within their gaseous envelopes, and they have high cloud surface gravities. There are layers of metallic liquid hydrogen surrounding their planet-sized cores, which are composed of metals, carbon, and ices. The atmospheres of these worlds are almost always turbulent and lacking any haze layer of consequence.
JunicType
These are MesoJovian worlds in tight solar orbits whose upper atmospheres are largely filled with silicate clouds. Extreme examples may actually be too hot to support upper cloud layers at all.
JovicType
These are MesoJovian worlds which orbit beyond the snowline, and which possess dynamic atmosp
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
heres.
SuperJovianClass
These are Jovian worlds with masses ranging from 2.5 to 13 times that of Jupiter; this is enough mass to compress their cores into electron-degenerate matter. Despite their great masses, the sizes of these worlds rarely extend much beyond that of Jupiter; the notable exceptions are those which experience atmospheric expansion from extreme solar heating.
SuperJunicType
These are SuperJovian worlds in tight solar orbits whose upper atmospheres are largely filled with silicate clouds. Extreme examples may actually be too hot to support upper cloud layers at all.
SuperJovicType
These are SuperJovian worlds which orbit beyond the snowline, and which possess dynamic atmospheres.
ChthonianClass
These are Jovian worlds with masses ranging from 0.015 to 0.24 times that of Jupiter. They are the exposed cores of Jovian worlds which have lost their gaseous envelopes through solar evaporation. This typically occurs to older Jovians in tight solar orbits, or Jovians that have been greatly affected by the evolution of their primary sun.

Planemo Group

These are planetary-massed objects which are not gravitationally bound to any star, and are found in the deeps of interstellar space. Some such worlds may have formed naturally without a sun, while others were gravitationally ejected from their home systems.
Hauhetean Class
These are Planemo worlds which retain their hydrogen and helium primary atmospheres, but whose masses are not great enough to maintain an internal geology.
NyxianClass
These are Planemo worlds which are not massive enough to retain their primary hydrogen-helium atmospheres. Some such worlds have a secondary atmosphere formed by volcanic outgassing, if they are massive enough to maintain such activity.
StevensonianClass
These are Planemo worlds which maintain a dense atmosphere which traps heat from internal geological activity, which creates pockets of habitability on the surface. Some such worlds are heated to an extent that the entire surface may be habitable.
Kauketean Class
These are Planemo worlds which maintain an atmosphere dense enough to create scorching surface conditions through trapped geothermal heat. However, they are not massive enough to be considered Odyssian worlds.
OdyssianClass
These are Planemo worlds which retain massive hydrogen-helium envelopes. They are, essentially, rogue gas giants. [/i]
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
Lot of work, that was.
Sirus
Joined: Jul 4, '15
Status: Newbie
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
I need to post some of my textures but theres way too many.
Pure
Joined: Apr 7, '13
Status: Experienced
Anyone wish to discuss binary stars? Or perhaps the recent passing of the star of Bethlehem as Jupiter and Venus lined up last week?

Oh yeah, and here is a list of star types and classificstions...





There is a link to a site with basic astronomical information .... if anyone is interested... idk, I think it is just me an Alex on this so most of this information isnt really needed...

alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
I'd do binary if you were here.

Actually F type stars are white, A type are the bright blue, and G are yellow to bright yellow.

It's actually really cool, the understanding of all planetary types
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
DAMN I WISH I HAD A YOTTABYTE HARD DRIVE SPACE COMPUTER O.O
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Experienced
Its really amazing that some people STILL think Earth is only 6000 years old, when the very people that originally promoted the idea have now withdrawn it, and now agree with science.
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Advanced
I'm finding mmmmaaannyy Terrans with life, hehe
Zephyr30
Joined: Jul 25, '15
Status: Newbie
Can you distinguish planetary types and star types by us it looking through a standard telescope? If so, what might be some good tips to do so?
rhimicha
Joined: Jan 26, '15
Status: Junior
*waddles in*

Oh my goblin, Alex. You're like a walking dictionary on space.

Oooh, Terra 58 is so purty .o. (I like 'em all, though)

*waddles out*
alex3000
Joined: Jul 12, '14
Status: Advanced
planetary types, no way. With a standard telescope, you can't even tell if a star has planets. Now star types are discernible but only through great difficulty with only the human eye, since stars that aren't just tiny un-colored specks usually look blue, but it's best to have spectrometer equipment to help you accurately, but that also usually takes a larger telescope to do properly...

ikr? XD

Eh, I guess.

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